Artemisia absinthium

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.5–1.5
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CS – competitor/stress-tolerator
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CR/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 36.9 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 21.9 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 41.2 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – pinnately divided
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: scleromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: July-October
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  • Flowering phase: 8 Clematis vitalba-Galium sylvaticum (mid-summer)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx absent, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: tubular
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  • Inflorescence type: panicula ex anthodiis composita
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  • Dicliny: gynomonoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: wind-pollination, insect-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: probably non-myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Type of clonal growth organ: stolon
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 1
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.13
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  • Clonal index: 4
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 10
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 25
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 10
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 25
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 3

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 18
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 8758.6
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 4379.3
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  • Genomic GC content: 38.9 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: archaeophyte
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  • Invasion status: naturalized
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  • Geographic origin: Mediterranean
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  • Introduction pathway: accidental introduction
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 8 – light plant, only exceptionally occurring at less than 40% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 7 – occurring at nutrient-rich sites more often than at average sites and only exceptionally at poor sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.75
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.53
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.54
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.55
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.56
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.57

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1A Calcareous cliffs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1B Siliceous cliffs and block fields: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 2 – optimum
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8A Hercynian dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 2 – optimum
  • 8B Submediterranean dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8E Acidophilous dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9B Open vegetation of acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9C Festuca grasslands on acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9E Acidophilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9F Basiphilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11N Low xeric scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12J Acidophilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12T Robinia pseudacacia plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13C Annual vegetation of trampled habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon of associations: XCA03 Potentillo argenteae-Artemisietum absinthii
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 3.4
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 3.5
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4.5
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 5
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 7
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 8

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 8
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 342, 687
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.4 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 37.5 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 15.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 1.6 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 10.4 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 88 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 22
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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