Artemisia vulgaris

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.5–3
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  • Growth form: polycarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 41.6 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 29.6 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 28.8 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – pinnately divided
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: scleromorphic, mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: July–October
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  • Flowering phase: 8 Clematis vitalba-Galium sylvaticum (mid-summer)
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  • Flower colour: green-white, red-brown
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx absent, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: tubular
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  • Inflorescence type: panicula ex anthodiis composita
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  • Dicliny: gynomonoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: wind-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: probably myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: pleiocorm
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  • Storage organ: pleiocorm
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Position of root buds: lateral roots
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: additive
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 13
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 18
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 16
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 36
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 9

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 16
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 5457.03
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 2728.52
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  • Genomic GC content: 38.2 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 6x – transition between values 5 and 7 (generalist)
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 8 – pronounced nutrient indicator
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.39
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.33
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.68
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.69
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.54
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.59

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1A Calcareous cliffs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1B Siliceous cliffs and block fields: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1C Walls: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4A Reed-beds of eutrophic still waters: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4B Halophilous reed and sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4D Riverine reed vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 4H Vegetation of low annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4I Vegetation of nitrophilous annual hygrophilous herbs: 2 – optimum
  • 4J River gravel banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4L Nitrophilous herbaceous fringes of lowland rivers: 2 – optimum
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 2 – optimum
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8E Acidophilous dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9B Open vegetation of acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9C Festuca grasslands on acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9D Pannonian sand steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9E Acidophilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9F Basiphilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11I Willow carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 2 – optimum
  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 2 – optimum
  • 12 Forests

  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12T Robinia pseudacacia plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 2 – optimum
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13C Annual vegetation of trampled habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 4 – constant dominant
  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 2 – optimum
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Constant taxon of classes: XC Artemisietea vulgaris
  • Constant taxon of associations: KAB03 Salici purpureae-Myricarietum germanicae, KBD01 Sambucetum nigrae, KBD02 Lycietum barbari, XBA04 Stachyo annuae-Setarietum pumilae, XBG01 Chenopodietum stricti, XBG02 Chenopodietum urbici, XBG03 Atriplicetum nitentis, XBG04 Descurainio sophiae-Atriplicetum oblongifoliae, XBG05 Cynodonto dactyli-Atriplicetum tataricae, XBG06 Atriplicetum roseae, XBG07 Sisymbrietum loeselii, XBG08 Descurainietum sophiae, XBG09 Sisymbrietum altissimi, XBG10 Chamaeplietum officinalis, XBG11 Conyzo canadensis-Lactucetum serriolae, XBG12 Ivaetum xanthiifoliae, XBG13 Kochietum densiflorae, XBH01 Hordeetum murini, XBK04 Cynodontetum dactyli, XCA01 Carduo acanthoidis-Onopordetum acanthii, XCA02 Salvio nemorosae-Marrubietum peregrini, XCA03 Potentillo argenteae-Artemisietum absinthii, XCB01 Melilotetum albo-officinalis, XCB02 Berteroetum incanae, XCB03 Dauco carotae-Crepidetum rhoeadifoliae, XCB04 Dauco carotae-Picridetum hieracioidis, XCB05 Poo compressae-Tussilaginetum farfarae, XCB06 Poëtum humili-compressae, XCB07 Tanaceto vulgaris-Artemisietum vulgaris, XCB08 Artemisio vulgaris-Echinopsietum sphaerocephali, XCB09 Rudbeckio laciniatae-Solidaginetum canadensis, XCB10 Buniadetum orientalis, XCB11 Asclepiadetum syriacae, XCC01 Convolvulo arvensis-Elytrigietum repentis, XCC02 Falcario vulgaris-Elytrigietum repentis, XCE01 Urtico urentis-Chenopodietum boni-henrici, XCE02 Arctietum lappae, XCE03 Hyoscyamo nigri-Conietum maculati, XCE04 Sambucetum ebuli, XDA01 Cuscuto europaeae-Calystegietum sepium, XDA03 Calystegio sepium-Impatientetum glanduliferae, XDA04 Sicyo angulatae-Echinocystietum lobatae, XDD02 Torilidetum japonicae, XDE02 Symphyto officinalis-Anthriscetum sylvestris, XDE03 Chaerophylletum aromatici, XDE04 Chaerophylletum aurei, XDE05 Chaerophylletum bulbosi, XDE07 Oenothero biennis-Helianthetum tuberosi
  • Dominant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 3.8
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 3.8
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 9
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 7
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 10

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Asia
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 8
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 657, 2267
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 8.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 17.8 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 8.8 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 5.5 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 8.1 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 99 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 41
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 9
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 10
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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