Betula pendula var. pendula

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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
    ?
  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
    ?
  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
    ?
  • Stipules: present
    ?
  • Petiole: present
    ?

Flower

  • Flower colour: yellow-green
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  • Perianth type: homochlamydeous, reduced or absent
    ?
  • Perianth fusion: reduced
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  • Inflorescence type: amentum e floribus masculis, amentum e floribus femineis
    ?

Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Epilobium (mainly anemochory and autochory)
    ?
  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
    ?

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
    ?

Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
    ?

Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
    ?
  • Temperature indicator value: 5x – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas (generalist)
    ?
  • Moisture indicator value: 5x – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out (generalist)
    ?
  • Reaction indicator value: 4x – transition between values 3 and 5 (generalist)
    ?
  • Nutrient indicator value: 3x – occurring at nutrient-poor sites more frequently than at average sites and exceptionally at rich sites (generalist)
    ?
  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
    ?

Habitat and sociology

  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation

Distribution and frequency

  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt, subalpine belt
    ?
  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 53, 96
    ?

Threats and protection

  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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