Bromus commutatus

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.3–1
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  • Growth form: annual herb
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  • Life form: therophyte (hemicryptophyte)
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): R/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 26.8 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 28.3 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 45 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: absent
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  • Leaf life span: overwintering green
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May–June
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  • Flowering phase: 6 Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora (start of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: green
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  • Perianth type: reduced
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  • Perianth fusion: reduced
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  • Inflorescence type: panicula e spiculis composita
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: autogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: wind-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – caryopsis
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 5
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 1
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 5
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 1

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: archaeophyte
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  • Invasion status: naturalized
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  • Geographic origin: Mediterranean
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  • Introduction pathway: accidental introduction
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
    ?
  • Temperature indicator value: 7 – heat indicator, occurring in relatively warm lowlands
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  • Moisture indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 5 – occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 2 – optimum
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 2 – optimum
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of associations: XBG09 Sisymbrietum altissimi
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 2
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 9
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 3

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 5
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt (submontane belt)
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 197, 319
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 4
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 2
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C3 – vulnerable taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): DD – data deficient
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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