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Campanula rapunculus

Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.3–0.6 ?
  • Growth form: monocarpic perennial non-clonal herb ?
  • Life form: hemikryptophyte ?
  • Life strategy: CSR - competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal ?
  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): R/CR ?
  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 24.3 % ?
  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 % ?
  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 75.7 % ?

Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified ?
  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate ?
  • Leaf shape: simple – entire ?
  • Stipules: absent ?
  • Petiole: both present and absent ?
  • Leaf persistence: summer green ?
  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic ?

Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May-July ?
  • Flowering phase: 7 Ligustrum vulgare-Stachys sylvatica (end of early summer) ?
  • Flower colour: blue ?
  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic ?
  • Perianth: calyx and corolla ?
  • Fusion of the perianth: fused ?
  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perigon: campanulate ?
  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous ?
  • Inflorescence type: racemus, panicula ?
  • Dicliny: synoecious ?
  • Generative reproduction mode: allogamy self-incompatibility ?
  • Pollen vector: insects ?

Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule ?
  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores ?
  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed ?
  • Dispersal strategies: Allium (mainly autochory) ?
  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b) ?

Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing ?
  • Primary root presence: present ?
  •   Bud bank ?
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 10
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 10
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 3

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic ?
  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous ?
  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts ?

Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: neophyte ?
  • Invasion status: casual ?
  • Geographic origin: Europe, Mediterranean ?
  • Year of the first record in the wild: 1892 ?
  • Introduction pathway: accidental introduction ?

Ecological indicator values

  •   Ellenberg-type indicator values
  • Light indicator value: 8 - light plant, only exceptionally occurring at less than 40% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area ?
  • Temperature indicator value: 7 - heat indicator, occurring in relatively warm lowlands ?
  • Moisture indicator value: 3 - missing on damp soil ?
  • Reaction indicator value: 8 - transition between values 7 and 9, occurring mostly in calcium-rich conditions ?
  • Nutrient indicator value: 5 - occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites ?
  • Salinity indicator value: 0 - not salt tolerant, glycophyte ?

Habitat and sociology

  •   Affinity to the forest environment ?
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 - taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 - taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  •   Ecological specialization indices ?
  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.1
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.4

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: southern temperate, submeridional, meridional ?
  • Floristic region: Europe ?
  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 5 ?
  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and in quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 29, 38 ?
  •   Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic ?
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 20 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 4 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 13 %

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List ?
  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) - least concern (taxon is not on the Red List) ?
  • Legal protection: not protected by law ?

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