Carex pseudocyperus

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.4–1
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CS – competitor/stress-tolerator
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CS/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 37.3 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 38 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 24.7 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: absent
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: helomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May–July
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  • Flowering phase: 6 Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora (start of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: green
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  • Perianth type: flower achlamydeous
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  • Inflorescence type: spica e spiculis composita
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  • Dicliny: monoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: wind-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – nut enclosed in an utricle
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  • Fruit colour: green, brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Sparganium (mainly autochory and hydrochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: probably non-myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome
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  • Storage organ: rhizome, tuft
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: epigeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 6
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.01
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  • Clonal index: 4
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 66
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 705.23
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 352.62
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  • Genomic GC content: 35.9 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 9 – wetness indicator, focus on often soaked, poorly aerated soils
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  • Reaction indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.87
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.72
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.19
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.23
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.48
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.49

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 3 Aquatic vegetation

  • 3C Macrophytic vegetation of oligotrophic lakes and pools: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4A Reed-beds of eutrophic still waters: 2 – optimum
  • 4F Mesotrophic vegetation of muddy substrata: 2 – optimum
  • 4G Tall-sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4H Vegetation of low annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4I Vegetation of nitrophilous annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11I Willow carrs: 2 – optimum
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 2 – optimum
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon of associations: MCF01 Cicuto virosae-Caricetum pseudocyperi
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.1
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.1
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.2
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 3
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 6
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 25.5

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional, subtropical, austral or antarctic
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  • Floristic region: circumpolar
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 6
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 312, 557
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.4 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 40.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 36.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 21.1 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 23.9 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 88 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 8
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C4a – near threatened taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): NT – near threatened
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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