Centaurium pulchellum

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.01–0.2
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  • Growth form: annual herb
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  • Life form: therophyte
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  • Life strategy: SR – stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): R
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 13.2 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 86.8 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): opposite
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: absent
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: helomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May–July
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  • Flowering phase: 8 Clematis vitalba-Galium sylvaticum (mid-summer)
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  • Flower colour: white, pink
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: hypocrateriform
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: panicula, dichasium
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative autogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded):
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded):
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]:
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included):
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included):
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]:

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 38 (36, 40, 42, 54)
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  • Ploidy level (x): 4
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 2350.68
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 587.67
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  • Genomic GC content: 40.7 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 9 – full light plant, occurring only in fully irradiated places, not at less than 50% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 7x – humidity indicator, focus on well moistened, but not wet soils (generalist)
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  • Reaction indicator value: 8 – transition between values 7 and 9, occurring mostly in calcium-rich conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Salinity indicator value: 3 – β-mesohaline, mostly on soils with low salt content
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.51
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.09
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.35
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.38
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.54
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.57

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4B Halophilous reed and sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4H Vegetation of low annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 2 – optimum
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13C Annual vegetation of trampled habitats: 2 – optimum
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.3
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.4
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional, subtropical
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Asia, Africa
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 10
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 208, 385
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.2 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 4.3 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.4 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 13 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 5
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C3 – vulnerable taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): VU – vulnerable
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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