Circaea ×intermedia

Circaea alpina × C. lutetiana – čarovník alpský × č. pařížský
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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.1–0.4
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  • Life form: geophyte
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): opposite
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: present
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June–August
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  • Flower colour: white
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: hypanthium
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  • Inflorescence type: racemus
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Type of clonal growth organ: hypogeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]:
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  • Number of clonal offspring:
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.13
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  • Clonal index: 5
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded):
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded):
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]:
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included):
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included):
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]:

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 22 (33)
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2 (3)
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 990.84
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 495.42
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  • Genomic GC content: 40.5 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 3 – shade plant, usually occurring where the incident radiation is less than 5% of that in an open area, but also at sunnier sites
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 7 – humidity indicator, focus on well moistened, but not wet soils
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.83
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.68
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.29
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.18
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.15
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.15

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1B Siliceous cliffs and block fields: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5B Lowland to montane soft-water springs: 2 – optimum
  • 5C Alpine and subalpine soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11H Subalpine deciduous scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12B Alluvial forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12D Ravine forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12R Acidophilous spruce forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12S Basiphilous spruce forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 1.1 – taxon occurring mainly in the closed forest
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 1.1 – taxon occurring mainly in the closed forest
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.8
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.5
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.9
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 2
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 2
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Continentality degree: 5
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 3
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 346, 676
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.3 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.8 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 13 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 18
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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