Consolida regalis

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.15–1.2
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  • Growth form: annual herb
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  • Life form: therophyte
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  • Life strategy: R – ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): SR/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 20.4 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 36.9 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 42.7 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – palmately divided
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: overwintering green
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  • Leaf anatomy: scleromorphic, mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June–August
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  • Flowering phase: 7 Ligustrum vulgare-Stachys sylvatica (end of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: white, pink, blue-violet
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: homochlamydeous
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Inflorescence type: panicula
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – cluster of follicles
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded):
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded):
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]:
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included):
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included):
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included):
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]:

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 16
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 6626.28
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 3313.14
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  • Genomic GC content: 40.6 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: archaeophyte
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  • Invasion status: naturalized
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  • Geographic origin: Mediterranean
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  • Period of introduction: Bronze Age (2300–750 BCE)
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  • Introduction pathway: unintentional – agriculture
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 7 – heat indicator, occurring in relatively warm lowlands
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  • Moisture indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: 0.19
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: 0.19
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.97
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.97
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.77
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.83

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9B Open vegetation of acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9E Acidophilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 2 – optimum
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon of associations: XBA02 Lathyro tuberosi-Adonidetum aestivalis
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.8
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.8
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 4
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 3
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 4

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
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  • Continentality degree: 6
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 5
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 396, 979
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 1.2 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 22.4 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 3.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 6.1 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 42 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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