Cytisus scoparius

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.5–2.5
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  • Growth form: shrub
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  • Life form: nanophanerophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): SR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 49.7 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 50.3 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: compound – ternate
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf deciduousness in woody plants: winter deciduous
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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  • Functional leaf type in woody plants: broad deciduous or semi-deciduous
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May-June
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  • Flowering phase: 4 Fagus sylvatica-Galeobdolon (start of mid-spring)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: flores solitarii
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy self-incompatibility
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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  • Pollinator spectrum: honeybee, bumblebees, flies s. l., nitidulids (solitary bees, hoverflies, meat flies s. l., other Diptera, beetles, other pollinators)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – legume
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  • Fruit colour: black
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: assimilating shoot
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 30
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 30
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 3

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: symbiosis with rhizobia
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 48 (46)
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  • Ploidy level (x): 4
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 1787.13
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 446.78
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  • Genomic GC content: 38.6 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: neophyte
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  • Invasion status: naturalized
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  • Geographic origin: Europe
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  • Year of the first record in the wild: 1819
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  • Introduction pathway: deliberate introduction
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Reaction indicator value: 3 – acidity indicator, occurring mainly in acidic conditions, exceptionally in neutral conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.55
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.67
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.34
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.29
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.26
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.2

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7B Submontane Nardus grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8A Hercynian dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8E Acidophilous dry grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9B Open vegetation of acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9C Festuca grasslands on acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11A Dry lowland to subalpine heathlands: 3 – dominant
  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 3 – dominant
  • 11N Low xeric scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 2 – optimum
  • 12 Forests

  • 12J Acidophilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12L Boreo-continental pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12O Peri-Alpidic pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 2 – optimum
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Constant taxon

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  • Constant taxon of associations: KAB03 Salici purpureae-Myricarietum germanicae
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 3.6
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 3.6
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4.8
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 5
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 9
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 12

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 4
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 4
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: colline belt, submontane belt (montane belt)
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 553, 1358
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.2 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 25.5 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 10.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 7.6 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 38 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 17
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 5

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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