Euphorbia palustris

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.5–1.2
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte (geophyte)
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  • Life strategy: CS – competitor/stress-tolerator
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): S/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 17.3 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 54.2 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 28.5 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: absent
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: helomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May–June
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  • Flowering phase: 4 Fagus sylvatica-Galeobdolon (start of mid-spring)
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  • Flower colour: yellow-green
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  • Perianth type: flower achlamydeous
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  • Inflorescence type: pseudumbella e cyathiis composita
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy self-incompatibility
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome-like pleiocorm
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  • Storage organ: rhizome-like pleiocorm
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: hypogeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 1
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.05
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  • Clonal index: 3
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 13
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 18
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 13
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 18
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 20
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 7267.1
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 3633.55
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  • Genomic GC content: 41.9 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 8 – transition between values 7 and 9
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 7x – occurring at nutrient-rich sites more often than at average sites and only exceptionally at poor sites (generalist)
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4A Reed-beds of eutrophic still waters: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4G Tall-sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4L Nitrophilous herbaceous fringes of lowland rivers: 2 – optimum
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 2 – optimum
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11I Willow carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 2 – optimum
  • 12 Forests

  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.8
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.6
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 6
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 6
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 33, 58
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 3 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 9
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C3 – vulnerable taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): VU – vulnerable
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  • Legal protection: endangered taxon
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