Fraxinus excelsior

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 20––35
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  • Growth form: tree
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  • Life form: macrophanerophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CS/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 37.4 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 46.2 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 16.5 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): opposite, verticillate
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  • Leaf shape: compound – imparipinnate
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf deciduousness in woody plants: winter deciduous
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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  • Functional leaf type in woody plants: broad deciduous or semi-deciduous
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: April
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  • Flowering phase: 2 Acer platanoides-Anemone nemorosa (start of early spring)
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  • Flower colour: green-white
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  • Perianth type: flower achlamydeous
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  • Inflorescence type: panicula
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  • Dicliny: trioecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: wind-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Epilobium (mainly anemochory and autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Position of root buds: lateral roots
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: additive
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 45
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 7

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 46
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 1532.21
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 766.1
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  • Genomic GC content: 37.3 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 4x – transition between values 3 and 5 (generalist)
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 6x – transition between values 5 and 7 (generalist)
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 7 – occurring at nutrient-rich sites more often than at average sites and only exceptionally at poor sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.92
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.8
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.25
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.09
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.08
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.2

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1A Calcareous cliffs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1C Walls: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5A Hard-water springs with tufa formation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8A Hercynian dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8B Submediterranean dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 2 – optimum
  • 11N Low xeric scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 2 – optimum
  • 12B Alluvial forests: 4 – constant dominant
  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12D Ravine forests: 4 – constant dominant
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12F Limestone beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12G Acidophilous beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12J Acidophilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12T Robinia pseudacacia plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 2 – optimum
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.7
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 3.1
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4.8
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 8
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 7
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 40

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 5
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 656, 2390
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 3.3 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 45 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 20.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 5.2 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 14.2 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 93 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 32
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 9
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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