Hyoscyamus niger

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.1–1.2
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  • Growth form: annual herb
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  • Life form: therophyte (hemicryptophyte)
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  • Life strategy: CR – competitor/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 42.2 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 57.9 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June-September
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  • Flowering phase: 6 Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora (start of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: funnel-shaped
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: cincinnus
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: mixed mating
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 8
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 2
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 8
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 2

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 34
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 2425.71
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 1212.85
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  • Genomic GC content: 39.9 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: archaeophyte
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  • Invasion status: naturalized
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  • Geographic origin: Mediterranean, Asia
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  • Introduction pathway: accidental introduction
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 8 – light plant, only exceptionally occurring at less than 40% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 8 – pronounced nutrient indicator
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: 0.19
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: 0.19
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.92
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.93
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.78
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.85

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 1 – rare occurrence, 2 – optimum
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 2 – optimum
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.3
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.3
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 8
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 287, 495
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 3.4 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.2 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 13 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 3
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 1
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C3 – vulnerable taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): VU – vulnerable
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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