Knautia dipsacifolia

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.5–1
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  • Growth form: polycarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): opposite, rosulate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic, hygromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: July-September
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  • Flowering phase: 8 Clematis vitalba-Galium sylvaticum (mid-summer)
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  • Flower colour: pink, red-violet, blue-violet
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx reduced, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: funnel-shaped, tubular
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: capitulum
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  • Dicliny: synoecious, gynodioecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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  • Pollinator spectrum: honeybee, bumblebees, hoverflies (solitary bees, flies s. l., meat flies s. l., other Diptera, butterflies, nitidulids)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: green, yellow, brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome-like pleiocorm
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  • Storage organ: rhizome-like pleiocorm
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 60
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  • Ploidy level (x): 6
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 18640.5
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 3106.75
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  • Genomic GC content: 39.6 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 5 – semi-shade plant, only exceptionally occurring in full light, but usually at more than 10% of the diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Moisture indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Reaction indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 5 – occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.6
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.61
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.32
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.26
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.19
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.33

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12S Basiphilous spruce forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Constant taxon of associations: KAB02 Salicetum purpureae
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.2
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.1
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.4
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 4
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 2
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: submontane belt, montane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 160, 261
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 8.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 2.7 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 3.9 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 38 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 10
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 0
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 0

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C4a – near threatened taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC – least concern
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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