Littorella uniflora

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.02–0.15
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): S
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 2.3 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 92.2 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 5.5 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): rosulate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: absent
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: hydromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May-September
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  • Flowering phase: 8 Clematis vitalba-Galium sylvaticum (mid-summer)
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  • Flower colour: green
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: tubular
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  • Calyx fusion: fused at the base
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  • Inflorescence type: flores solitarii
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  • Dicliny: monoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: wind-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Sparganium (mainly autochory and hydrochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b) nv
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: stolon, rhizome
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  • Storage organ: stolon, rhizome
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: stolon
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 1.5
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 4.8
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.1
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  • Clonal index: 5
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 2
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 2

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 24
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  • Ploidy level (x): 4
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 11036.07
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 2759.02
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  • Genomic GC content: 41 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 8 – light plant, only exceptionally occurring at less than 40% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 10 – aquatic plant that survives long periods without soil flooding
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  • Reaction indicator value: 5 – indicator of moderate acidity, occurring rarely in strongly acidic as well as in neutral to alkaline conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 2 – transition between values 1 and 3
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.67
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.67
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.04
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.09
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.73
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.75

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 3 Aquatic vegetation

  • 3C Macrophytic vegetation of oligotrophic lakes and pools: 2 – optimum
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4H Vegetation of low annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of classes: VD Littorelletea uniflorae
  • Diagnostic taxon of alliances: VDB Eleocharition acicularis
  • Diagnostic taxon of associations: VDB01 Eleocharito-Littorelletum uniflorae
  • Constant taxon

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  • Constant taxon of associations: VDB01 Eleocharito-Littorelletum uniflorae
  • Dominant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon of associations: VDB01 Eleocharito-Littorelletum uniflorae
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.9
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.9
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 4
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 4
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: colline belt, submontane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 36, 64
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 85.7 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 67.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 28.6 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 38.9 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 88 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 2
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 2
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C1b – critically threatened taxon, rare and declining
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): CR – critically endangered
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  • Legal protection: critically threatened taxon
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