Orchis pallens

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.15–0.3
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: geophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
    ?

Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: absent
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  • Leaf life span: spring green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic, hygromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: April–May
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  • Flowering phase: 4 Fagus sylvatica-Galeobdolon (start of mid-spring)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: homochlamydeous
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Inflorescence type: spica
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: green, brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Lycopodium (mainly anemochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
    ?

Belowground organs and clonality

  • Root metamorphosis: root tuber
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  • Storage organ: root tuber
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: root tuber
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 1
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 1
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.01
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  • Clonal index: 3
    ?
  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 10
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 10
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 3

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: partial or initial mycoheterotroph
    ?
  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
    ?

Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 40
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 9998.15
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 4999.07
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  • Genomic GC content: 45.6 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
    ?

Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 5x – semi-shade plant, only exceptionally occurring in full light, but usually at more than 10% of the diffuse radiation incident in an open area (generalist)
    ?
  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
    ?
  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
    ?
  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
    ?

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

    ?
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12D Ravine forests: 2 – optimum
  • Affinity to the forest environment

    ?
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Ecological specialization indices

    ?
  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 7.1
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 7.2
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: southern temperate, submeridional
    ?
  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 5
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 4
    ?
  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: colline belt, submontane belt
    ?
  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 58, 108
    ?
  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

    ?
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 5
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C2b – endangered taxon, rare and declining
    ?
  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): EN – endangered
    ?
  • Legal protection: endangered taxon
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