Pastinaca sativa

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.3–1
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  • Growth form: monocarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): C/CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 68.7 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 31.3 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: compound – imparipinnate
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: scleromorphic, mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: July-September
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  • Flowering phase: 8 Clematis vitalba-Galium sylvaticum (mid-summer)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx reduced, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: aposepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: umbella composita
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  • Dicliny: andromonoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: mixed mating
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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  • Pollinator spectrum: hoverflies (honeybee, solitary bees)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – cremocarp
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategies: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Root metamorphosis: primary storage root
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  • Storage organ: primary storage root
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Position of root buds: primary root
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: regenerative
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 8
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 13
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 12
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 32
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 9

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 22
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 2943.34
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 1471.67
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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  • Geographic origin: Mediterranean
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 8 – light plant, only exceptionally occurring at less than 40% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 5 – occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.22
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.22
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.53
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.55
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.63
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.72

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4L Nitrophilous herbaceous fringes of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 2 – optimum
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10J Saline steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 2 – optimum
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12T Robinia pseudacacia plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 2 – optimum
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.6
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.6
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 7
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 7
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 18

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 5
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and in quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 554, 1545
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 1.7 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 5.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.9 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 38 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 19
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 5
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3

Threats and protection

  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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