Phleum phleoides

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.3––0.6
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): S/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 13 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 61 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 26 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: absent
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: scleromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June-July
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  • Flowering phase: 7 Ligustrum vulgare-Stachys sylvatica (end of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: green
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  • Perianth type: reduced
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  • Perianth fusion: reduced
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  • Inflorescence type: pseudospica e spiculis composita
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: wind-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – caryopsis
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: mostly by seed/spores, rarely vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Storage organ: tuft
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: epigeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 3.5
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.01
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  • Clonal index: 4
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 12
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 17
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 12
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 17
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 14
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 3408.91
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 1704.45
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  • Genomic GC content: 47.2 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 8 – light plant, only exceptionally occurring at less than 40% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 3 – missing on damp soil
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 3 – occurring at nutrient-poor sites more frequently than at average sites and exceptionally at rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.88
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.43
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.21
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.24
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.47
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.54

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1B Siliceous cliffs and block fields: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7B Submontane Nardus grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8A Hercynian dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 2 – optimum
  • 8B Submediterranean dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 2 – optimum
  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8E Acidophilous dry grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9B Open vegetation of acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9C Festuca grasslands on acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9E Acidophilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9F Basiphilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11A Dry lowland to subalpine heathlands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11N Low xeric scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12J Acidophilous thermophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12L Boreo-continental pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12O Peri-Alpidic pine forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.7
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.8
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4.9
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 5
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 4
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 13

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
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  • Continentality degree: 6
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 6
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt (submontane belt)
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 346, 792
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 1.2 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 12.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 1.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 4 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 38 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 25
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 8
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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