Phyteuma orbiculare

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.1–0.25
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  • Growth form: polycarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): S/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 15 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 54.8 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 30.3 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate, rosulate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May-July
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  • Flowering phase: 6 Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora (start of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: white, blue
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic, zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: tubular
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: capitulum
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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  • Pollinator spectrum: bumblebees, hoverflies, flies s. l. (solitary bees, other Diptera)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: myrmecochorous nv
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: pleiocorm
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  • Root metamorphosis: primary storage root
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  • Storage organ: pleiocorm, primary storage root
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Position of root buds: lateral roots
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: regenerative
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 22
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 2106.27
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 1053.14
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  • Genomic GC content: 39.8 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 3 – occurring at nutrient-poor sites more frequently than at average sites and exceptionally at rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1B Siliceous cliffs and block fields: 2 – optimum
  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5C Alpine and subalpine soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5D Calcareous fens: 2 – optimum
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of classes: AC Elyno-Seslerietea
  • Diagnostic taxon of alliances: ACA Agrostion alpinae
  • Diagnostic taxon of associations: ACA02 Saxifrago paniculatae-Agrostietum alpinae
  • Constant taxon

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  • Constant taxon of associations: ACA02 Saxifrago paniculatae-Agrostietum alpinae
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.5
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.7

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 5
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 3
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt, subalpine belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 93, 136
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.3 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 3 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 8
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C2t – endangered taxon, declining
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): EN – endangered
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  • Legal protection: endangered taxon
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