Pilosella echioides

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.25–0.9
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 37.1 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 6.4 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 56.5 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June-July
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx reduced, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: ligulate
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  • Calyx fusion: pappus
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  • Inflorescence type: pseudumbella ex anthodiis composita
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy self-incompatibility, facultative apomixis
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown, black
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Epilobium (mainly anemochory and autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome
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  • Storage organ: rhizome
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: epigeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 2.5
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 0.5
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.07
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  • Clonal index: 3
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  • Position of root buds: lateral roots
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: additive
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 21
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 41
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 8

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 8 – light plant, only exceptionally occurring at less than 40% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 7 – heat indicator, occurring in relatively warm lowlands
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  • Moisture indicator value: 2 – transition between values 1 and 3
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  • Reaction indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 1 – occurring at nutrient-poorest sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.77
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.34
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.19
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.22
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.49
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.57

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8A Hercynian dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 2 – optimum
  • 8B Submediterranean dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 2 – optimum
  • 8E Acidophilous dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9C Festuca grasslands on acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9D Pannonian sand steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9E Acidophilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9F Basiphilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11A Dry lowland to subalpine heathlands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11N Low xeric scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12J Acidophilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12L Boreo-continental pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12O Peri-Alpidic pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Constant taxon of associations: THA04 Helichryso arenariae-Festucetum pallentis
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.9
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.8
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4.3

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
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  • Continentality degree: 7
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 6
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 40, 67
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.2 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 3.8 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.6 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 13 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 16
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C3 – vulnerable taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): VU – vulnerable
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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