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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.15–0.3
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  • Growth form: polycarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): C/CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 68.2 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 31.8 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): rosulate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: scleromorphic, mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June–September
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  • Flowering phase: 6 Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora (start of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: white, pink, brown
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: tubular
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: spica
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  • Dicliny: synoecious, gynomonoecious, andromonoecious, gynodioecious, androdioecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy self-incompatibility
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  • Pollination syndrome: wind-pollination, insect-pollination
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  • Pollinator spectrum: honeybee, hoverflies, nitidulids (bumblebees, solitary bees, other Hymenoptera, flies s. l., meat flies s. l., other Diptera, butterflies, beetles)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome-like pleiocorm
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  • Storage organ: rhizome-like pleiocorm
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: monopodial
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Position of root buds: lateral roots
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: additive
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 14
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 19
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 21
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 41
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 8

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 24
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  • Ploidy level (x): 4
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 4839.15
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 1209.79
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  • Genomic GC content: 41.9 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6x – transition between values 5 and 7 (generalist)
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  • Moisture indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.29
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.16
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.29
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.32
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.58
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.7

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1A Calcareous cliffs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1B Siliceous cliffs and block fields: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1C Walls: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5D Calcareous fens: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7B Submontane Nardus grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8A Hercynian dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8B Submediterranean dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 2 – optimum
  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8E Acidophilous dry grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9B Open vegetation of acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9C Festuca grasslands on acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9D Pannonian sand steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9E Acidophilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9F Basiphilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13C Annual vegetation of trampled habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.1
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.1
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4.6
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 7
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 5
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 30

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Asia, Siberia
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  • Continentality degree: 7
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 7
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 602, 1814
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 3.3 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 4.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.7 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 38 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 25
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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