Polygonatum verticillatum

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.3–1
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: geophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): R/CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 29.4 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 70.6 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): verticillate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: absent
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May–June
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  • Flowering phase: 5 Sorbus aucuparia-Galium odoratum (end of mid-spring)
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  • Flower colour: white
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: homochlamydeous
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: tubular
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  • Inflorescence type: flores solitarii
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  • Dicliny: synoecious, andromonoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: mixed mating
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: fleshy fruit – berry
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  • Fruit colour: red, blue, black
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed, fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Cornus (mainly autochory and endozoochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome
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  • Storage organ: rhizome
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: hypogeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 1
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.1
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  • Clonal index: 4
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 18
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 18
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 28
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 16541.38
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 8270.69
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  • Genomic GC content: 45.3 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Temperature indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 5 – occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.93
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.73
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.23
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.08
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.1
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.2

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5B Lowland to montane soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7A Subalpine and montane acidophilous grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11D Subalpine acidophilous Pinus mugo scrub: 2 – optimum
  • 11H Subalpine deciduous scrub: 2 – optimum
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12F Limestone beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12G Acidophilous beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12R Acidophilous spruce forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12S Basiphilous spruce forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 1.1 – taxon occurring mainly in the closed forest
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 1.1 – taxon occurring mainly in the closed forest
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.6
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.3
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.8
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 6
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 8
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 3

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
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  • Continentality degree: 4
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 4
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: submontane belt, montane belt (colline belt)
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 435, 1034
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 1.4 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 2.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0.2 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.4 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 38 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 20
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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