Primula elatior

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.03–0.3
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 53.2 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 46.8 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): rosulate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: hygromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: March-June
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  • Flowering phase: 2 Acer platanoides-Anemone nemorosa (start of early spring)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: hypocrateriform
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: umbella
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (a), non-myrmecochorous (a) nv
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome
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  • Storage organ: rhizome
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: epigeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 1
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.01
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  • Clonal index: 3
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 22
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 943.72
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 471.86
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  • Genomic GC content: 37.6 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 5x – semi-shade plant, only exceptionally occurring in full light, but usually at more than 10% of the diffuse radiation incident in an open area (generalist)
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5x – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas (generalist)
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  • Moisture indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.68
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.55
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.29
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.21
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.19
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.33

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4D Riverine reed vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4J River gravel banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 2 – optimum
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5B Lowland to montane soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5C Alpine and subalpine soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5D Calcareous fens: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5E Acidic moss-rich fens and peatland meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7A Subalpine and montane acidophilous grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7B Submontane Nardus grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11H Subalpine deciduous scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12B Alluvial forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12D Ravine forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12F Limestone beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12G Acidophilous beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of alliances: XDB Petasition hybridi
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.6
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.3
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.7
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 4
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 2
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 75

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
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  • Continentality degree: 5
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 4
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt, subalpine belt (lowlands)
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 487, 1235
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 2.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 6.7 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 3 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 42 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 31
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 9
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3

Threats and protection

  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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