Rubus odoratus

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 1–1.5
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  • Growth form: shrub
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  • Life form: nanophanerophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – palmately divided
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  • Stipules: present
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May–July
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  • Flower colour: red-violet
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: aposepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: corymbus, panicula
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: fleshy fruit – head of one-seeded drupes
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  • Fruit colour: yellow, red
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed, fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Cornus (mainly autochory and endozoochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Root metamorphosis: root shoot
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Position of root buds: lateral roots
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: additive
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 35
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 9
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 23
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 23
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 50
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 9

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: neophyte
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  • Invasion status: naturalized
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  • Geographic origin: North America
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  • Year of the first record in the wild: 1880
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  • Introduction pathway: deliberate introduction
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Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 12 Forests

  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 2 – optimum
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 2 – optimum
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic region: Eastern America
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 39, 42
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  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 2
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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