Scorzonera humilis

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.1–0.5
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  • Growth form: polycarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 61.4 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 1.6 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 37 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate, rosulate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May–June
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  • Flowering phase: 6 Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora (start of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx reduced, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: ligulate
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  • Calyx fusion: pappus
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  • Inflorescence type: anthodium solitarium
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy self-incompatibility, facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, geitonogamy
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Epilobium (mainly anemochory and autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: pleiocorm
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  • Root metamorphosis: primary storage root
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  • Storage organ: pleiocorm, primary storage root
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 14
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 10883.11
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 5441.55
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  • Genomic GC content: 40.7 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 7 – humidity indicator, focus on well moistened, but not wet soils
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  • Reaction indicator value: 5 – indicator of moderate acidity, occurring rarely in strongly acidic as well as in neutral to alkaline conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 3 – occurring at nutrient-poor sites more frequently than at average sites and exceptionally at rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.18
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.36
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.26
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.27
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.38
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.52

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5D Calcareous fens: 2 – optimum
  • 5E Acidic moss-rich fens and peatland meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7A Subalpine and montane acidophilous grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7B Submontane Nardus grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11A Dry lowland to subalpine heathlands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12L Boreo-continental pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12Q Peatland birch forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of alliances: TDD Molinion caeruleae
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 6.2
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 6.5
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 5
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 3
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt, subalpine belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 379, 902
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 8.2 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0.6 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 3.3 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 63 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 18
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 5
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C4a – near threatened taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC – least concern
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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