Senecio vulgaris

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.1–0.5
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  • Growth form: annual herb
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  • Life form: therophyte
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  • Life strategy: R – ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): R/CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 26.4 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 73.6 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – pinnately divided
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: overwintering green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: January–December
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  • Flowering phase: 1 Corylus avellana-Leucojum vernum (pre-spring)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx reduced, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: tubular
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  • Calyx fusion: pappus
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  • Inflorescence type: panicula ex anthodiis composita
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  • Dicliny: gynomonoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative autogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Epilobium (mainly anemochory and autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: probably non-myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 3
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 1
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 3
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 1

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 40
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  • Ploidy level (x): 4
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 2877.41
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 719.35
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  • Genomic GC content: 38.3 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: archaeophyte
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  • Invasion status: naturalized
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  • Geographic origin: anecophyte
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  • Introduction pathway: accidental introduction
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5x – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas (generalist)
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 6x – transition between values 5 and 7 (generalist)
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 7 – occurring at nutrient-rich sites more often than at average sites and only exceptionally at poor sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.15
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: 0.14
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.91
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.91
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.69
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.69

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1A Calcareous cliffs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1B Siliceous cliffs and block fields: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1C Walls: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4H Vegetation of low annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4I Vegetation of nitrophilous annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8A Hercynian dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9B Open vegetation of acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9E Acidophilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9F Basiphilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 2 – optimum
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 2 – optimum
  • 13C Annual vegetation of trampled habitats: 2 – optimum
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of associations: XBG08 Descurainietum sophiae
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.9
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4.7
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 5
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 7
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 4

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Asia
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 6
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 593, 1486
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 2.2 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 1.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.4 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 38 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 16
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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