Sonchus oleraceus

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.1–1
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  • Growth form: annual herb
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  • Life form: therophyte
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  • Life strategy: CR – competitor/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 61.1 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 38.9 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – pinnately divided
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: overwintering green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic, hygromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June–October
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  • Flowering phase: 7 Ligustrum vulgare-Stachys sylvatica (end of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx reduced, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: ligulate
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  • Calyx fusion: pappus
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  • Inflorescence type: corymbothyrsus ex anthodiis compositus
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: autogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: selfing
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  • Pollinator spectrum: solitary bees, other Diptera, beetles (hoverflies, flies s. l., meat flies s. l.)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Epilobium (mainly anemochory and autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: probably non-myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 4
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 1
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 4
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 1

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 32
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  • Ploidy level (x): 4
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 2693.34
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 673.33
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  • Genomic GC content: 38.4 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: archaeophyte
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  • Invasion status: naturalized
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  • Geographic origin: Mediterranean
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  • Introduction pathway: accidental introduction
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 8 – pronounced nutrient indicator
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.1
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.08
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.88
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.89
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.66
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.69

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1A Calcareous cliffs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1C Walls: 2 – optimum
  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4D Riverine reed vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4E Reed vegetation of brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4H Vegetation of low annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4I Vegetation of nitrophilous annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4L Nitrophilous herbaceous fringes of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12T Robinia pseudacacia plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 2 – optimum
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 2 – optimum
  • 13C Annual vegetation of trampled habitats: 2 – optimum
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of alliances: XBB Veronico-Euphorbion
  • Constant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.7
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.7
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 3.6
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 6
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 5
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 4

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Asia
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  • Continentality degree: 4
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 4
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 588, 1590
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 2.3 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 1.7 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 23 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 22
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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