Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.1–0.5
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  • Growth form: polycarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 55.4 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 44.7 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): rosulate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – pinnately divided
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: April-June
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  • Flowering phase: 3 Prunus avium-Ranunculus auricomus (end of early spring)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx reduced, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: ligulate
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  • Calyx fusion: pappus
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  • Inflorescence type: anthodium solitarium
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: apomixis
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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  • Pollinator spectrum: flies s. l., nitidulids (honeybee, bumblebees, solitary bees, other Hymenoptera, hoverflies, meat flies s. l., other Diptera, butterflies, beetles, thrips, other pollinators)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: white, brown, grey
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Epilobium (mainly anemochory and autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: pleiocorm
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  • Root metamorphosis: primary storage root
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  • Storage organ: pleiocorm, primary storage root
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Position of root buds: primary root
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: regenerative
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 2
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 13
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 15
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 2
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 20
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 37
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 9

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 16, 24
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2, 3
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 2266.19
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 775.43
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5x – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas (generalist)
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7x – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions (generalist)
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 7 – occurring at nutrient-rich sites more often than at average sites and only exceptionally at poor sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.75
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.35
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.59
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.59
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.54
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.61

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1A Calcareous cliffs: 2 – optimum
  • 1B Siliceous cliffs and block fields: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1C Walls: 2 – optimum
  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2A Alpine grasslands on siliceous bedrock: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 3 Aquatic vegetation

  • 3C Macrophytic vegetation of oligotrophic lakes and pools: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4A Reed-beds of eutrophic still waters: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4B Halophilous reed and sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4C Eutrophic vegetation of muddy substrata: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4D Riverine reed vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4E Reed vegetation of brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4F Mesotrophic vegetation of muddy substrata: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4G Tall-sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4H Vegetation of low annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4I Vegetation of nitrophilous annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4J River gravel banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4L Nitrophilous herbaceous fringes of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5A Hard-water springs with tufa formation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5B Lowland to montane soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5C Alpine and subalpine soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5D Calcareous fens: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5E Acidic moss-rich fens and peatland meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5F Transitional mires: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 2 – optimum
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 2 – optimum
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7A Subalpine and montane acidophilous grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7B Submontane Nardus grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8A Hercynian dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8B Submediterranean dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8E Acidophilous dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9B Open vegetation of acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9C Festuca grasslands on acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9D Pannonian sand steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9E Acidophilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9F Basiphilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 10J Saline steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11A Dry lowland to subalpine heathlands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11H Subalpine deciduous scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11I Willow carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11N Low xeric scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12F Limestone beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12G Acidophilous beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12J Acidophilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12L Boreo-continental pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12O Peri-Alpidic pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12T Robinia pseudacacia plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 2 – optimum
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 2 – optimum
  • 13C Annual vegetation of trampled habitats: 2 – optimum
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 2 – optimum
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Constant taxon

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  • Constant taxon of associations: KAB01 Salicetum elaeagno-purpureae, SAA01 Cystopteridetum fragilis, SAA02 Asplenietum rutae-murario-trichomanis, SBA01 Cymbalarietum muralis, TCB01 Scorzonero parviflorae-Juncetum gerardii, TCB02 Loto tenuis-Potentilletum anserinae, TDA01 Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, TDA02 Ranunculo bulbosi-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, TDA03 Poo-Trisetetum flavescentis, TDA04 Potentillo albae-Festucetum rubrae, TDC01 Lolio perennis-Cynosuretum cristati, TDC03 Lolietum perennis, TDC04 Prunello vulgaris-Ranunculetum repentis, TDE01 Poo trivialis-Alopecuretum pratensis, TDE02 Holcetum lanati, TDE04 Cnidio dubii-Deschampsietum cespitosae, THF02 Brachypodio pinnati-Molinietum arundinaceae, XAA01 Polygonetum arenastri, XAA04 Eragrostio minoris-Polygonetum arenastri, XAB01 Sagino procumbentis-Bryetum argentei, XAB03 Rumici acetosellae-Spergularietum rubrae, XAB04 Poëtum annuae, XAB05 Lolio perennis-Matricarietum discoideae, XBA03 Euphorbio exiguae-Melandrietum noctiflori, XBA04 Stachyo annuae-Setarietum pumilae, XBA05 Veronicetum hederifolio-triphylli, XBB01 Mercurialietum annuae, XBB02 Veronico-Lamietum hybridi, XBC01 Aphano arvensis-Matricarietum chamomillae, XBC03 Erophilo vernae-Arabidopsietum thalianae, XBE01 Echinochloo cruris-galli-Chenopodietum polyspermi, XBG02 Chenopodietum urbici, XBG10 Chamaeplietum officinalis, XBG11 Conyzo canadensis-Lactucetum serriolae, XBG12 Ivaetum xanthiifoliae, XBH01 Hordeetum murini, XBH02 Hordeo murini-Brometum sterilis, XBI03 Polygono arenastri-Chenopodietum muralis, XBI04 Malvo neglectae-Chenopodietum vulvariae, XBK01 Digitario sanguinalis-Eragrostietum minoris, XBK02 Portulacetum oleraceae, XBK03 Eragrostio poaeoidis-Panicetum capillaris, XCB01 Melilotetum albo-officinalis, XCB02 Berteroetum incanae, XCB03 Dauco carotae-Crepidetum rhoeadifoliae, XCB04 Dauco carotae-Picridetum hieracioidis, XCB05 Poo compressae-Tussilaginetum farfarae, XCB06 Poëtum humili-compressae, XCB07 Tanaceto vulgaris-Artemisietum vulgaris, XCE01 Urtico urentis-Chenopodietum boni-henrici, XCE02 Arctietum lappae, XDC02 Epilobio montani-Geranietum robertiani, XDD01 Alliario petiolatae-Chaerophylletum temuli, XDD03 Anthriscetum trichospermae, XDE01 Elytrigio repentis-Aegopodietum podagrariae, XDE02 Symphyto officinalis-Anthriscetum sylvestris, XDE03 Chaerophylletum aromatici, XDE05 Chaerophylletum bulbosi
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 3.6
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 3.8
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: arctic, boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 7
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt, subalpine belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 661, 2352
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 15.8 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 6.5 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0.8 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.9 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 88 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 77
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 16
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 13
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 5
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