Tephroseris crispa

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.2–0.6
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CS – competitor/stress-tolerator
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate, rosulate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: helomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May–July
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic, zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx reduced, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: ligulate, tubular
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  • Calyx fusion: pappus
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  • Inflorescence type: pseudumbella ex anthodiis composita
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  • Dicliny: gynomonoecious
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Epilobium (mainly anemochory and autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: probably non-myrmecochorous nv
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome
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  • Storage organ: rhizome
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: epigeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 1
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.01
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  • Clonal index: 3
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 10
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 10
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 3

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 48
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 8896.68
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 4448.34
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  • Genomic GC content: 40.4 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7; rarely at less than 20% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 8 – transition between values 7 and 9
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  • Reaction indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 5 – occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.8
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.42
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.24
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.26
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.57
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.69

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4E Reed vegetation of brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5B Lowland to montane soft-water springs: 2 – optimum
  • 5C Alpine and subalpine soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5D Calcareous fens: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5E Acidic moss-rich fens and peatland meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 5F Transitional mires: 2 – optimum
  • 5H Wet peat soils and bog hollows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7B Submontane Nardus grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11H Subalpine deciduous scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11I Willow carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12R Acidophilous spruce forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12S Basiphilous spruce forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of alliances: RAD Swertio perennis-Dichodontion palustris
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 6.1
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 6.3
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.9
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 5
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 1
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 310, 752
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 6.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.7 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 18 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 20
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C4a – near threatened taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC – least concern
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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