Trifolium repens

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.1––0.2
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte (chamaephyte)
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): R/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 25.4 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 12.7 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 61.9 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: compound – ternate
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  • Stipules: present
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic, hygromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May-October
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  • Flowering phase: 6 Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora (start of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: white
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: capitulum
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy self-incompatibility
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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  • Pollinator spectrum: honeybee, bumblebees (solitary bees, other Hymenoptera, hoverflies, flies s. l., meat flies s. l., other Diptera, butterflies, beetles, nitidulids, other pollinators, unknown)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed, fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: stolon
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  • Root metamorphosis: primary storage root
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  • Storage organ: stolon, primary storage root
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: stolon
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: monopodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 1.9
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 3.9
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.27
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  • Clonal index: 6
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  • Position of root buds: lateral roots
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: regenerative
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 15
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 1
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 15
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 1

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: symbiosis with rhizobia
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 32
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  • Ploidy level (x): 4
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 1956.55
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 489.14
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  • Genomic GC content: 37.2 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5x – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas (generalist)
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.11
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.07
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.55
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.57
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.71
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.84

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 3 Aquatic vegetation

  • 3C Macrophytic vegetation of oligotrophic lakes and pools: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4B Halophilous reed and sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4C Eutrophic vegetation of muddy substrata: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4E Reed vegetation of brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4G Tall-sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4H Vegetation of low annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4I Vegetation of nitrophilous annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4J River gravel banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4L Nitrophilous herbaceous fringes of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5A Hard-water springs with tufa formation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5B Lowland to montane soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5D Calcareous fens: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5E Acidic moss-rich fens and peatland meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5F Transitional mires: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 3 – dominant
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 2 – optimum
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 2 – optimum
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7A Subalpine and montane acidophilous grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 7B Submontane Nardus grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8E Acidophilous dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9B Open vegetation of acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9C Festuca grasslands on acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9D Pannonian sand steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9E Acidophilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9F Basiphilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11A Dry lowland to subalpine heathlands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11H Subalpine deciduous scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 2 – optimum
  • 13C Annual vegetation of trampled habitats: 2 – optimum
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.5
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.5
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 3.5
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 8
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 5
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 7

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional, subtropical, tropical, austral or antarctic
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  • Floristic region: circumpolar
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 8
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt, subalpine belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 663, 2359
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 7.5 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 19.8 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 5.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 1.2 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 6.1 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 88 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 44
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 11
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 11
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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