Veronica chamaedrys

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.15––0.3
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte (chamaephyte)
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): opposite
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May-August
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  • Flowering phase: 4 Fagus sylvatica-Galeobdolon (start of mid-spring)
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  • Flower colour: blue
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: rotate
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  • Calyx fusion: fused at the base
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  • Inflorescence type: racemus
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, pseudocleistogamy
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  • Pollinator spectrum: honeybee, hoverflies, flies s. l. (bumblebees, solitary bees, other Hymenoptera, meat flies s. l., other Diptera, butterflies, beetles, other pollinators)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (a)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: stolon
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  • Storage organ: stolon
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: stolon
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 2.9
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 2.1
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.13
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  • Clonal index: 4
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 9
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 24
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 9
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 24
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 32
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  • Ploidy level (x): 4
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 3037.07
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 759.27
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  • Genomic GC content: 40.4 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 6x – transition between values 5 and 7; rarely at less than 20% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area (generalist)
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7x – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions (generalist)
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 6x – transition between values 5 and 7 (generalist)
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1A Calcareous cliffs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1B Siliceous cliffs and block fields: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1C Walls: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4D Riverine reed vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4E Reed vegetation of brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4G Tall-sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4J River gravel banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4L Nitrophilous herbaceous fringes of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5B Lowland to montane soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5D Calcareous fens: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5E Acidic moss-rich fens and peatland meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 2 – optimum
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7A Subalpine and montane acidophilous grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 7B Submontane Nardus grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8A Hercynian dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8B Submediterranean dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8E Acidophilous dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9C Festuca grasslands on acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9E Acidophilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9F Basiphilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11A Dry lowland to subalpine heathlands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11H Subalpine deciduous scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11N Low xeric scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12F Limestone beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12G Acidophilous beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12J Acidophilous thermophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12L Boreo-continental pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12O Peri-Alpidic pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12T Robinia pseudacacia plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13C Annual vegetation of trampled habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 2 – optimum
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Constant taxon

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  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 7
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 3
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 32

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 6
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt, subalpine belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 665, 2335
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  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 62
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 15
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 12
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 5

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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