Vicia pisiformis

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.8–2
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: compound – paripinnate
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  • Stipules: present
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May–August
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  • Flowering phase: 7 Ligustrum vulgare-Stachys sylvatica (end of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: yellow-white
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: racemus
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: mixed mating
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – legume
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  • Fruit colour: green, brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome-like pleiocorm
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  • Storage organ: rhizome-like pleiocorm
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: hypogeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 1
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.4
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  • Clonal index: 5
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: symbiosis with rhizobia
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 12
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 10779.16
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 5389.58
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  • Genomic GC content: 42 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7; rarely at less than 20% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 7 – heat indicator, occurring in relatively warm lowlands
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  • Moisture indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Reaction indicator value: 8 – transition between values 7 and 9, occurring mostly in calcium-rich conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.97
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.76
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.23
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.05
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.05
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.12

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12J Acidophilous thermophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 1.2 – taxon occurring mainly along forest edges and in forest openings, including forest roads and paths, windthrow sites, burnt sites and forest clearings
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 1.2 – taxon occurring mainly along forest edges and in forest openings, including forest roads and paths, windthrow sites, burnt sites and forest clearings
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of associations: LBB04 Primulo veris-Carpinetum betuli
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 6
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.4
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 6.2
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 6
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 3
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 183, 334
    ?
  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 2.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 13 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 9
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 5
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C3 – vulnerable taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): NT – near threatened
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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