Vicia sylvatica

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.5–2
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  • Growth form: polycarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): R/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 28.2 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 23.8 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 48 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: compound – paripinnate
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  • Stipules: present
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June–August
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  • Flowering phase: 7 Ligustrum vulgare-Stachys sylvatica (end of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: white
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: racemus
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – legume
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: stolon, pleiocorm
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  • Storage organ: stolon, pleiocorm
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: symbiosis with rhizobia
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7; rarely at less than 20% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 5x – occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites (generalist)
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.94
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.75
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.25
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.08
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.08
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.18

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 2 – optimum
  • 12 Forests

  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12F Limestone beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12G Acidophilous beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12J Acidophilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 2 – optimum
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 2 – optimum
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 1.2 – taxon occurring mainly along forest edges and in forest openings, including forest roads and paths, windthrow sites, burnt sites and forest clearings
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 1.2 – taxon occurring mainly along forest edges and in forest openings, including forest roads and paths, windthrow sites, burnt sites and forest clearings
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.8
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.1
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 6
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 5
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 8
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 75

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Siberia
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  • Continentality degree: 6
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 5
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: colline belt, submontane belt (lowlands, montane belt)
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 405, 832
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.4 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 2.5 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.2 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 13 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 17
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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