Viola biflora

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.1–0.2
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): R
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 8.6 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 91.4 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: present
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: hygromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May-August
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  • Flowering phase: 3 Prunus avium-Ranunculus auricomus (end of early spring)
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  • Flower colour: yellow
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: aposepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: flores solitarii
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: mixed mating
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing, cleistogamy
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  • Pollinator spectrum: hoverflies, flies s. l., meat flies s. l., other Diptera (other Hymenoptera)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: green, brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome
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  • Storage organ: rhizome
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: epigeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: monopodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 2.5
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 0.9
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.1
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  • Clonal index: 4
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 12
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 17
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 12
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 17
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 12
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 981.46
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 490.73
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  • Genomic GC content: 43.3 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 4x – transition between values 3 and 5 (generalist)
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  • Temperature indicator value: 3 – cool indicator, occurring mainly in subalpine areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 8 – transition between values 7 and 9
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  • Reaction indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 5 – occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.01
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.68
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.19
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.23
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.49
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.53

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1B Siliceous cliffs and block fields: 2 – optimum
  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 2 – optimum
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5B Lowland to montane soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5C Alpine and subalpine soft-water springs: 2 – optimum
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11H Subalpine deciduous scrub: 2 – optimum
  • 12 Forests

  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12R Acidophilous spruce forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12S Basiphilous spruce forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon of associations: RAD03 Cardaminetum opicii
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.1
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.9

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: arctic, boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Asia, Western America
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  • Continentality degree: 6
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 5
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: montane belt, subalpine belt (colline belt)
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 51, 99
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.3 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 13.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 1.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 4 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 38 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 9
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 5
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 5

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C4a – near threatened taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC – least concern
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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