Viola canadensis var. rugulosa

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Habitus and growth type

  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): R/CSR
    ?
  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 25.9 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 16.6 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 57.5 %
    ?

Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: present
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  • Petiole: present
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Flower

  • Flower colour: white
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: aposepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: flores solitarii
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative autogamy
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Myrmecochory: myrmecochorous nv
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Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: neophyte
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  • Invasion status: casual
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  • Geographic origin: North America
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  • Year of the first record in the wild: 1948
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  • Introduction pathway: deliberate introduction
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Habitat and sociology

  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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