Cirsium oleraceum

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.5–1.7
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 50.6 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 49.4 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire, simple – pinnately divided
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf persistence: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: hygromorphic, helomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June-October
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  • Flowering phase: 8 Clematis vitalba-Galium sylvaticum (mid-summer)
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  • Flower colour: yellow-white, green-white
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth: calyx reduced, corolla present
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  • Fusion of the perianth: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perigon: tubular
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  • Calyx fusion: pappus
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  • Inflorescence type: corymbus ex anthodiis compositus
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction mode: mixed mating
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  • Pollen vector: insects
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – achene/cypsela/samara
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  • Fruit colour: yellow, brown, grey
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategies: Epilobium (mainly anemochory and autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: epigeogenous rhizome
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  • Presence of freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root presence: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 3.3
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 1
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.09
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  • Clonal index: 4
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 4

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 34
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 2007.32
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 1003.66
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  • Genomic GC content: 38.6 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7; rarely at less than 20% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5x – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas (generalist)
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  • Moisture indicator value: 8 – transition between values 7 and 9
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 7 – occurring at nutrient-rich sites more often than at average sites and only exceptionally at poor sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.14
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.42
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.32
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.32
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.4
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.47

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 2 Alpine and subalpine grasslands

  • 2B Subalpine tall-forb and tall-grass vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4A Reed-beds of eutrophic still waters: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4B Halophilous reed and sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4D Riverine reed vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 4E Reed vegetation of brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4G Tall-sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4J River gravel banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 2 – optimum
  • 4L Nitrophilous herbaceous fringes of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5A Hard-water springs with tufa formation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5B Lowland to montane soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5C Alpine and subalpine soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5D Calcareous fens: 2 – optimum
  • 5E Acidic moss-rich fens and peatland meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 2 – optimum
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11H Subalpine deciduous scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11I Willow carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 2 – optimum
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 2 – optimum
  • 12B Alluvial forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 2 – optimum
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.1 – taxon occurring both in the forest and open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.5
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.9
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.4
  • Colonization Ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 2
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 1
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 3

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Siberia
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  • Continentality degree: 5
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 4
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and in quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 628, 2054
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 4.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 24.7 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 7.7 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 2.8 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 7.8 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 88 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 36
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 9
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 9
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 6

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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