Cypripedium calceolus

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.2–0.45
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: geophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: absent
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May-June
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  • Flowering phase: 5 Sorbus aucuparia-Galium odoratum (end of mid-spring)
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  • Flower colour: yellow, red-brown
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth: homochlamydeous
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  • Fusion of the perianth: free
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  • Inflorescence type: flores solitarii
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: green, brown
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  • Reproduction type: mostly vegetatively, rarely by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategies: Lycopodium (mainly anemochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome
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  • Storage organ: rhizome
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: hypogeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
    ?
  • Number of clonal offspring: 1
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.06
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  • Clonal index: 3
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 2
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 17
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 2
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 17
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 5

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: partial or initial mycoheterotroph
    ?
  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 20
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 71054.64
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 35527.32
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  • Genomic GC content: 44.1 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 5 – semi-shade plant, only exceptionally occurring in full light, but usually at more than 10% of the diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 8 – transition between values 7 and 9, occurring mostly in calcium-rich conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
    ?

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 2 – optimum
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12F Limestone beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 1.2 – taxon occurring mainly along forest edges and in forest openings, including forest roads and paths, windthrow sites, burnt sites and forest clearings
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 1.2 – taxon occurring mainly along forest edges and in forest openings, including forest roads and paths, windthrow sites, burnt sites and forest clearings

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: circumpolar
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  • Continentality degree: 6
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 6
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and in quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 96, 138
    ?
  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

    ?
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 6
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 2
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C2b – endangered taxon, rare and declining
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): VU – vulnerable
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  • Legal protection: endangered taxon
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