Euphorbia exigua

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.05–0.2
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  • Growth form: annual herb
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  • Life form: therophyte
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  • Life strategy: R – ruderal
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): R/SR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 0.5 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 34.8 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 64.8 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: absent
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  • Leaf persistence: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: hygromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June-September
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  • Flowering phase: 6 Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora (start of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: green
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  • Perianth: flower achlamydeous
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  • Inflorescence type: pseudumbella e cyathiis composita
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction mode: mixed mating
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  • Pollen vector: insects
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategies: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: probably myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Position of root buds: hypocotyl
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: additive
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 4
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 1
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 10
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 10
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 1

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 24 (16, 26, 28, 56)
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 1149.61
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 574.81
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  • Genomic GC content: 38.7 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: archaeophyte
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  • Invasion status: naturalized
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  • Geographic origin: Mediterranean
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  • Introduction pathway: accidental introduction
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Reaction indicator value: 8 – transition between values 7 and 9, occurring mostly in calcium-rich conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 5 – occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: 0.42
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: 0.42
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.99
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.99
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.76
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.87

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1D Mobile calcareous screes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8C Narow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9F Basiphilous vegetation of spring therophytes and succulents: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13A Annual vegetation of ruderal habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13B Annual vegetation of arable land: 2 – optimum
  • 13C Annual vegetation of trampled habitats: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon of associations: XBA01 Caucalido platycarpi-Conringietum orientalis
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 6.3
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 6.3
  • Colonization Ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 4
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 5
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 25

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 4
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 4
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and in quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 278, 622
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 17 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 1.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 4.9 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 42 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 8
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C4a – near threatened taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): NT – near threatened
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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