Mentha aquatica

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.45–1.5
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CS – competitor/stress-tolerator
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 39.1 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 8 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 52.9 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): opposite
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: hygromorphic, helomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: July–August
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  • Flowering phase: 8 Clematis vitalba-Galium sylvaticum (mid-summer)
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  • Flower colour: pink, pink-violet
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: tubular
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: capitulum e verticillastris compositum
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  • Dicliny: gynomonoecious, gynodioecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination
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  • Pollinator spectrum: hoverflies, flies s. l., other Diptera (honeybee, bumblebees, solitary bees, other Hymenoptera, meat flies s. l., butterflies, beetles, nitidulids, thrips, other pollinators)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – cluster of four one-seeded nutlets
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part, shoot fragment
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  • Dispersal strategy: Sparganium (mainly autochory and hydrochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: probably myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: stolon
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  • Storage organ: stolon
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: hypogeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 1.7
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 6
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.13
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  • Clonal index: 5
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 8
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 12
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 8
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 12
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 3

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 96
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  • Ploidy level (x): 8
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 2567.24
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 320.9
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  • Genomic GC content: 39.1 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 9 – wetness indicator, focus on often soaked, poorly aerated soils
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 7 – occurring at nutrient-rich sites more often than at average sites and only exceptionally at poor sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.75
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.63
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.22
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.26
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.58
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.62

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 3 Aquatic vegetation

  • 3C Macrophytic vegetation of oligotrophic lakes and pools: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4A Reed-beds of eutrophic still waters: 2 – optimum
  • 4B Halophilous reed and sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4C Eutrophic vegetation of muddy substrata: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4D Riverine reed vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 4E Reed vegetation of brooks: 2 – optimum
  • 4G Tall-sedge beds: 2 – optimum
  • 4H Vegetation of low annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4I Vegetation of nitrophilous annual hygrophilous herbs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4J River gravel banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4L Nitrophilous herbaceous fringes of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5A Hard-water springs with tufa formation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5B Lowland to montane soft-water springs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5D Calcareous fens: 2 – optimum
  • 5E Acidic moss-rich fens and peatland meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5F Transitional mires: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5H Wet peat soils and bog hollows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11I Willow carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 2 – optimum
  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Dominant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon of associations: MCB02 Schoenoplectetum tabernaemontani
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 3.6
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 3.6
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.2
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 2
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 1
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 7

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional, austral or antarctic
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Siberia, Eastern America, circumpolar
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 5
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 485, 1007
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.9 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 12.4 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 3.4 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0.4 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 4.5 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 88 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 28
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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