Orthilia secunda subsp. secunda

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.1–0.25
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: chamaephyte
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  • Life strategy: S – stress-tolerator
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): S/SR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 13.1 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 64 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 22.9 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): rosulate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: scleromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June-July
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  • Flowering phase: 7 Ligustrum vulgare-Stachys sylvatica (end of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: green-white
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: racemus
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: mixed mating
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Lycopodium (mainly anemochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: stolon
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  • Root metamorphosis: root shoot
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: hypogeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 0.5
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.17
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  • Clonal index: 3
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  • Position of root buds: primary root
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: necessary
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 15
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 4
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 20
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 40
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 8

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: partial or initial mycoheterotroph
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 38
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 15840.19
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 7920.09
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  • Genomic GC content: 41.8 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 4 – transition between values 3 and 5
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 5x – indicator of moderate acidity, occurring rarely in strongly acidic as well as in neutral to alkaline conditions (generalist)
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 3 – occurring at nutrient-poor sites more frequently than at average sites and exceptionally at rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -2
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.7
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.19
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.09
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.19

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 2 – optimum
  • 12 Forests

  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12F Limestone beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12G Acidophilous beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12L Boreo-continental pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12O Peri-Alpidic pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 2 – optimum
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 1.1 – taxon occurring mainly in the closed forest
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 1.1 – taxon occurring mainly in the closed forest
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of alliances: LBD Sorbo-Fagion sylvaticae
  • Diagnostic taxon of associations: LBD01 Cephalanthero damasonii-Fagetum sylvaticae
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.8
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 3.3
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4.9
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 4
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 8
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 34

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: arctic, boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional, subtropical
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  • Floristic region: circumpolar
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  • Continentality degree: 6
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 5
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 435, 906
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 1.8 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 3 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 12
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 4
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 2
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C3 – vulnerable taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): NT – near threatened
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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